Robot market in high-risk industries

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Robot market in high-risk industries

according to the statistics of the national work safety conference held on January 16, 2016, 38 major accidents occurred in 2015, and the number of deaths and disappearances increased compared with the past. In recent ten years, most of the major safety accidents occurred in mining, road traffic, fireworks, construction and other high-risk industries. Once an accident occurs in these industries, it is very easy to cause serious consequences of mass casualties

the supply of labor market is decreasing, the demographic dividend is decreasing year by year, and some high-risk industries are facing labor shortage. The 2016 social blue book released by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in December 2015 pointed out that the labor supply decreased in each quarter of 2015, which is the decline trend of labor supply for four consecutive years after the inflection point of China's labor market in 2012. It is estimated that China will face a serious shortage of labor after 2030. At the same time, the problem of population aging is becoming increasingly prominent, and the advantage of demographic dividend tends to end. Therefore, affected by the national labor shortage, the selectivity of labor force to the work industry has improved, and high-risk industries may face recruitment difficulties. Taking the construction industry as an example, 87.6% of construction sites in Jiangsu Province experienced labor shortage in 2014. In this context, the use of robot employees can just fill this gap

"machine replacement" completes high-risk work and helps enterprises reduce costs at the same time. The 13th five year plan points out that enterprises should strengthen the prevention and control of occupational disease hazards. It is suggested to expand the coverage of industrial injury insurance to ensure that all employees enjoy industrial injury insurance and subsidies. In addition, the 2015 edition of the classified catalogue of occupational hazard factors released by the four ministries and commissions of the state has increased the original 133 hazard factors to 454. Facing more and more strict occupational disease prevention and control norms, enterprises should invest more cost to implement them to ensure the safety of employees

"machine replacement", on the one hand, it can not only complete the work with quality and quantity, but also effectively avoid the possible consequences of potential dangers; On the other hand, the application of robot employees can improve the production efficiency, reduce the production cost, improve the technical content of products and expand the competitive strength of enterprises

the shortage of technical personnel has slowed down the application of industrial robots in high-risk industries. It is predicted that there will be a gap of 50000 industrial robots and related technologies installed in the country in 2020, and the number of industrial robots will reach 1 million. In high-risk industries, due to the complex working environment and unpredictable emergencies, there are higher requirements for the operation of robots. Engineers or technicians not only need to control the robot efficiently, but also need to understand the relevant knowledge of the industry. At present, the high salary of such talents in short supply increases the application cost of robots in high-risk industries, which makes many enterprises flinch from changing machines

the core technology of robot manufacturing is mastered by foreign enterprises, which hinders cost reduction and makes small and medium-sized enterprises in high-risk industries unable to invest. The development of China's robot industry is later than that of developed countries such as Europe, America and Japan, so the core technology and top-level architecture design of robots are still controlled by these countries. At present, the basic technology can meet the needs of China's market, but it is limited to mechanical services. The controllers, numerical control systems, reducers and servo motors, which account for a large proportion in the overall cost structure, need to be imported, and the reducer alone accounts for about 35% of the total cost. The lack of key parts has led to significant restrictions on the expansion of the industrial chain of domestic enterprises, which can not avoid high import costs and can only assemble modules close to finished products. Therefore, for most small and medium-sized enterprises in high-risk industries, even if the replacement of machines can save costs in the long run, the purchase of robots also means the need to add supporting equipment and introduce relevant technical talents, and their capital chain can not be borne in the short term

there is a lack of administrative means in high-risk industries, and it is mandatory to replace machines for dangerous work. Germany, which developed the robot industry earlier, introduced a policy of "improving working conditions plan" as early as the 1970s. The state uses administrative means to force that some dangerous, toxic and harmful jobs must be replaced by robots. In China, the State Administration of work safety vigorously promoted key high-risk industries to improve the automation level in 2015, but did not issue clear administrative measures to force the replacement of machines for specific posts in high-risk industries. Small and medium-sized enterprises in high-risk industries, even under the advocacy of national policies, are difficult to promote industrial robots in dangerous jobs in the short term due to the lack of corresponding financial and talent support

first, encourage the training of robot application professionals in high-risk industries and improve the operation ability of employees in high-risk industries. High risk industries require robot application personnel to have industry knowledge. Therefore, the government can set up special funds to encourage and support enterprises to select on-the-job employees for relevant operation training. On the premise of their own practical operation experience, employees in high-risk industries such as mines can master robot operation and maintenance through training, which can help enterprises effectively deal with various emergencies in the application of robot dangerous operation

the second is to increase research and development efforts to realize the localization of key robot parts. On the one hand, China should control the robot industry as "The market price of degradable plastics is 2 (3) times higher than that of ordinary plastic products. In order to achieve the production capacity target, the low-level construction will focus on the research and development of domestic technologies and patents. Support colleges and universities to focus on the development of disciplines such as machinery, artificial intelligence, sensors, control, network and communication, and cultivate professionals; on the other hand, develop industrial application solutions, make breakthroughs from downstream software design, and provide customized solutions for high-risk industries.

Third, encourage small and medium-sized enterprises in high-risk industries to integrate resources and build alliances for collaborative innovation. Most of the high-risk industries are small and medium-sized enterprises in the construction industry, chemical industry, metallurgy and mineral industry. These enterprises invest in robot technology on their own, which is easy to break the capital chain. Policies should be issued to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises of the same type in high-risk industries to build an alliance innovation model, so as to have more capital to develop advanced robot technology through resource sharing

Fourth, restrict enterprises to realize machine replacement in dangerous operations through administrative regulations. On the one hand, the Chinese government should learn from the German precedent and formulate administrative regulations to force some dangerous posts to realize machine replacement. On the other hand, local governments have introduced preferential fiscal and tax policies to accelerate the depreciation of fixed assets and increase the disposable funds for enterprises to invest in robot technology. At the same time, provide talent support and form an expert group to guide the technology application of the enterprise. Compared with the capacity of 170000 tons at the end of 2016 (author: CCID then press ent to confirm (Note: the time of pressing ent to confirm must not be too long, Li Minmin and Gao Hong of the Institute of safety industry, a think tank)

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